02 Octave Programming: Logistic Regression (Sigmoid)

[ 02 Octave Programming: Logistic Regression (Sigmoid)]

Previous  Next  Contents

Lecture Note 

 

ex2.m
[ Files ]

%% Machine Learning Online Class - Exercise 2: Logistic Regression
%
%  Instructions
%  ------------
%
%  This file contains code that helps you get started on the logistic
%  regression exercise. You will need to complete the following functions
%  in this exericse:
%
%     sigmoid.m
%     costFunction.m
%     predict.m
%     costFunctionReg.m
%
%  For this exercise, you will not need to change any code in this file,
%  or any other files other than those mentioned above.
%

%% Initialization
clear ; close all; clc

%% Load Data
%  The first two columns contains the exam scores and the third column
%  contains the label.

data = load('ex2data1.txt');
X = data(:, [1, 2]); y = data(:, 3);

%% ==================== Part 1: Plotting ====================
%  We start the exercise by first plotting the data to understand the
%  the problem we are working with.

fprintf(['Plotting data with + indicating (y = 1) examples and o ' ...
         'indicating (y = 0) examples.\n']);

plotData(X, y);

% Put some labels
hold on;
% Labels and Legend
xlabel('Exam 1 score')
ylabel('Exam 2 score')

% Specified in plot order
legend('Admitted', 'Not admitted')
hold off;

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ============ Part 2: Compute Cost and Gradient ============
%  In this part of the exercise, you will implement the cost and gradient
%  for logistic regression. You neeed to complete the code in
%  costFunction.m

%  Setup the data matrix appropriately, and add ones for the intercept term
[m, n] = size(X);

% Add intercept term to x and X_test
X = [ones(m, 1) X];

% Initialize fitting parameters
initial_theta = zeros(n + 1, 1);

% Compute and display initial cost and gradient
[cost, grad] = costFunction(initial_theta, X, y);

fprintf('Cost at initial theta (zeros): %f\n', cost);
fprintf('Gradient at initial theta (zeros): \n');
fprintf(' %f \n', grad);

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ============= Part 3: Optimizing using fminunc  =============
%  In this exercise, you will use a built-in function (fminunc) to find the
%  optimal parameters theta.

%  Set options for fminunc
options = optimset('GradObj', 'on', 'MaxIter', 400);

%  Run fminunc to obtain the optimal theta
%  This function will return theta and the cost
[theta, cost] = ...
	fminunc(@(t)(costFunction(t, X, y)), initial_theta, options);

% Print theta to screen
fprintf('Cost at theta found by fminunc: %f\n', cost);
fprintf('theta: \n');
fprintf(' %f \n', theta);

% Plot Boundary
plotDecisionBoundary(theta, X, y);

% Put some labels
hold on;
% Labels and Legend
xlabel('Exam 1 score')
ylabel('Exam 2 score')

% Specified in plot order
legend('Admitted', 'Not admitted')
hold off;

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ============== Part 4: Predict and Accuracies ==============
%  After learning the parameters, you'll like to use it to predict the outcomes
%  on unseen data. In this part, you will use the logistic regression model
%  to predict the probability that a student with score 45 on exam 1 and
%  score 85 on exam 2 will be admitted.
%
%  Furthermore, you will compute the training and test set accuracies of
%  our model.
%
%  Your task is to complete the code in predict.m

%  Predict probability for a student with score 45 on exam 1
%  and score 85 on exam 2 

prob = sigmoid([1 45 85] * theta);
fprintf(['For a student with scores 45 and 85, we predict an admission ' ...
         'probability of %f\n\n'], prob);

% Compute accuracy on our training set
p = predict(theta, X);

fprintf('Train Accuracy: %f\n', mean(double(p == y)) * 100);

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

ex2_reg.m

%% Machine Learning Online Class - Exercise 2: Logistic Regression
%
%  Instructions
%  ------------
%
%  This file contains code that helps you get started on the second part
%  of the exercise which covers regularization with logistic regression.
%
%  You will need to complete the following functions in this exericse:
%
%     sigmoid.m
%     costFunction.m
%     predict.m
%     costFunctionReg.m
%
%  For this exercise, you will not need to change any code in this file,
%  or any other files other than those mentioned above.
%

%% Initialization
clear ; close all; clc

%% Load Data
%  The first two columns contains the X values and the third column
%  contains the label (y).

data = load('ex2data2.txt');
X = data(:, [1, 2]); y = data(:, 3);

plotData(X, y);

% Put some labels
hold on;

% Labels and Legend
xlabel('Microchip Test 1')
ylabel('Microchip Test 2')

% Specified in plot order
legend('y = 1', 'y = 0')
hold off;

%% =========== Part 1: Regularized Logistic Regression ============
%  In this part, you are given a dataset with data points that are not
%  linearly separable. However, you would still like to use logistic
%  regression to classify the data points.
%
%  To do so, you introduce more features to use -- in particular, you add
%  polynomial features to our data matrix (similar to polynomial
%  regression).
%

% Add Polynomial Features

% Note that mapFeature also adds a column of ones for us, so the intercept
% term is handled
X = mapFeature(X(:,1), X(:,2));

% Initialize fitting parameters
initial_theta = zeros(size(X, 2), 1);

% Set regularization parameter lambda to 1
lambda = 1;

% Compute and display initial cost and gradient for regularized logistic
% regression
[cost, grad] = costFunctionReg(initial_theta, X, y, lambda);

fprintf('Cost at initial theta (zeros): %f\n', cost);

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ============= Part 2: Regularization and Accuracies =============
%  Optional Exercise:
%  In this part, you will get to try different values of lambda and
%  see how regularization affects the decision coundart
%
%  Try the following values of lambda (0, 1, 10, 100).
%
%  How does the decision boundary change when you vary lambda? How does
%  the training set accuracy vary?
%

% Initialize fitting parameters
initial_theta = zeros(size(X, 2), 1);

% Set regularization parameter lambda to 1 (you should vary this)
lambda = 1;

% Set Options
options = optimset('GradObj', 'on', 'MaxIter', 400);

% Optimize
[theta, J, exit_flag] = ...
	fminunc(@(t)(costFunctionReg(t, X, y, lambda)), initial_theta, options);

% Plot Boundary
plotDecisionBoundary(theta, X, y);
hold on;
title(sprintf('lambda = %g', lambda))

% Labels and Legend
xlabel('Microchip Test 1')
ylabel('Microchip Test 2')

legend('y = 1', 'y = 0', 'Decision boundary')
hold off;

% Compute accuracy on our training set
p = predict(theta, X);

fprintf('Train Accuracy: %f\n', mean(double(p == y)) * 100);

plotData.m

function plotData(X, y)
%PLOTDATA Plots the data points X and y into a new figure
%   PLOTDATA(x,y) plots the data points with + for the positive examples
%   and o for the negative examples. X is assumed to be a Mx2 matrix.

% Create New Figure
figure; hold on;

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Plot the positive and negative examples on a
%               2D plot, using the option 'k+' for the positive
%               examples and 'ko' for the negative examples.
%

% Find Indices of Positive and Negative Examples
pos = find(y==1); neg = find(y == 0);
% Plot Examples
plot(X(pos, 1), X(pos, 2), 'k+','LineWidth', 2, ...
'MarkerSize', 7);
plot(X(neg, 1), X(neg, 2), 'ko', 'MarkerFaceColor', 'y', ...
'MarkerSize', 7);

% =========================================================================

hold off;

end

costFunction.m

function [J, grad] = costFunction(theta, X, y)
%COSTFUNCTION Compute cost and gradient for logistic regression
%   J = COSTFUNCTION(theta, X, y) computes the cost of using theta as the
%   parameter for logistic regression and the gradient of the cost
%   w.r.t. to the parameters.

% Initialize some useful values
m = length(y); % number of training examples

% You need to return the following variables correctly
J = 0;
grad = zeros(size(theta));

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the cost of a particular choice of theta.
%               You should set J to the cost.
%               Compute the partial derivatives and set grad to the partial
%               derivatives of the cost w.r.t. each parameter in theta
%
% Note: grad should have the same dimensions as theta
%

hx = sigmoid(X * theta);
m = length(X);

J = sum(-y' * log(hx) - (1 - y')*log(1 - hx)) / m;

grad = X' * (hx - y) / m;

% =============================================================

end

costFunctionReg.m

function [J, grad] = costFunctionReg(theta, X, y, lambda)
%COSTFUNCTIONREG Compute cost and gradient for logistic regression with regularization
%   J = COSTFUNCTIONREG(theta, X, y, lambda) computes the cost of using
%   theta as the parameter for regularized logistic regression and the
%   gradient of the cost w.r.t. to the parameters. 

% Initialize some useful values
m = length(y); % number of training examples

% You need to return the following variables correctly
J = 0;
grad = zeros(size(theta));

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the cost of a particular choice of theta.
%               You should set J to the cost.
%               Compute the partial derivatives and set grad to the partial
%               derivatives of the cost w.r.t. each parameter in theta

hx = sigmoid(X * theta);
m = length(X);

J = (sum(-y' * log(hx) - (1 - y')*log(1 - hx)) / m) + lambda * sum(theta(2:end).^2) / (2*m);

% theta = initial_theta
% lambda .* [0; ones(length(theta)-1, 1)
grad =((hx - y)' * X / m)' + lambda .* theta .* [0; ones(length(theta)-1, 1)] ./ m ;

% =============================================================

end

mapFeature.m

function out = mapFeature(X1, X2)
% MAPFEATURE Feature mapping function to polynomial features
%
%   MAPFEATURE(X1, X2) maps the two input features
%   to quadratic features used in the regularization exercise.
%
%   Returns a new feature array with more features, comprising of
%   X1, X2, X1.^2, X2.^2, X1*X2, X1*X2.^2, etc..
%
%   Inputs X1, X2 must be the same size
%

degree = 6;
out = ones(size(X1(:,1)));
for i = 1:degree
    for j = 0:i
        out(:, end+1) = (X1.^(i-j)).*(X2.^j);
    end
end

end

plotDecisionBoundary.m

function plotDecisionBoundary(theta, X, y)
%PLOTDECISIONBOUNDARY Plots the data points X and y into a new figure with
%the decision boundary defined by theta
%   PLOTDECISIONBOUNDARY(theta, X,y) plots the data points with + for the
%   positive examples and o for the negative examples. X is assumed to be
%   a either
%   1) Mx3 matrix, where the first column is an all-ones column for the
%      intercept.
%   2) MxN, N>3 matrix, where the first column is all-ones

% Plot Data
plotData(X(:,2:3), y);
hold on

if size(X, 2) <= 3     % Only need 2 points to define a line, so choose two endpoints     plot_x = [min(X(:,2))-2,  max(X(:,2))+2];     % Calculate the decision boundary line     plot_y = (-1./theta(3)).*(theta(2).*plot_x + theta(1));     % Plot, and adjust axes for better viewing     plot(plot_x, plot_y)          % Legend, specific for the exercise     legend('Admitted', 'Not admitted', 'Decision Boundary')     axis([30, 100, 30, 100]) else     % Here is the grid range     u = linspace(-1, 1.5, 50);     v = linspace(-1, 1.5, 50);     z = zeros(length(u), length(v));     % Evaluate z = theta*x over the grid     for i = 1:length(u)         for j = 1:length(v)             z(i,j) = mapFeature(u(i), v(j))*theta;         end     end     z = z'; % important to transpose z before calling contour     % Plot z = 0     % Notice you need to specify the range [0, 0]     contour(u, v, z, [0, 0], 'LineWidth', 2) end hold off end 

sigmoid.m

function g = sigmoid(z)
%SIGMOID Compute sigmoid functoon
%   J = SIGMOID(z) computes the sigmoid of z.

% You need to return the following variables correctly
g = zeros(size(z));

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the sigmoid of each value of z (z can be a matrix,
%               vector or scalar).

g = 1 ./ (1 + exp(-z));

% =============================================================

end

predict.m

function p = predict(theta, X) %PREDICT Predict whether the label is 0 or 1 using learned logistic  %regression parameters theta %   p = PREDICT(theta, X) computes the predictions for X using a  %   threshold at 0.5 (i.e., if sigmoid(theta'*x) >= 0.5, predict 1)

m = size(X, 1); % Number of training examples

% You need to return the following variables correctly
p = zeros(m, 1);

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Complete the following code to make predictions using
%               your learned logistic regression parameters.
%               You should set p to a vector of 0's and 1's
%

p = (sigmoid(X*theta) >= 0.5);

% =========================================================================

end

submit.m

function submit()
  addpath('./lib');

  conf.assignmentSlug = 'logistic-regression';
  conf.itemName = 'Logistic Regression';
  conf.partArrays = { ...
    { ...
      '1', ...
      { 'sigmoid.m' }, ...
      'Sigmoid Function', ...
    }, ...
    { ...
      '2', ...
      { 'costFunction.m' }, ...
      'Logistic Regression Cost', ...
    }, ...
    { ...
      '3', ...
      { 'costFunction.m' }, ...
      'Logistic Regression Gradient', ...
    }, ...
    { ...
      '4', ...
      { 'predict.m' }, ...
      'Predict', ...
    }, ...
    { ...
      '5', ...
      { 'costFunctionReg.m' }, ...
      'Regularized Logistic Regression Cost', ...
    }, ...
    { ...
      '6', ...
      { 'costFunctionReg.m' }, ...
      'Regularized Logistic Regression Gradient', ...
    }, ...
  };
  conf.output = @output;

  submitWithConfiguration(conf);
end

function out = output(partId, auxstring)
  % Random Test Cases
  X = [ones(20,1) (exp(1) * sin(1:1:20))' (exp(0.5) * cos(1:1:20))'];
  y = sin(X(:,1) + X(:,2)) > 0;
  if partId == '1'
    out = sprintf('%0.5f ', sigmoid(X));
  elseif partId == '2'
    out = sprintf('%0.5f ', costFunction([0.25 0.5 -0.5]', X, y));
  elseif partId == '3'
    [cost, grad] = costFunction([0.25 0.5 -0.5]', X, y);
    out = sprintf('%0.5f ', grad);
  elseif partId == '4'
    out = sprintf('%0.5f ', predict([0.25 0.5 -0.5]', X));
  elseif partId == '5'
    out = sprintf('%0.5f ', costFunctionReg([0.25 0.5 -0.5]', X, y, 0.1));
  elseif partId == '6'
    [cost, grad] = costFunctionReg([0.25 0.5 -0.5]', X, y, 0.1);
    out = sprintf('%0.5f ', grad);
  end
end

[ Lib ]

ex2data1.txt

34.62365962451697,78.0246928153624,0
30.28671076822607,43.89499752400101,0
35.84740876993872,72.90219802708364,0
60.18259938620976,86.30855209546826,1
79.0327360507101,75.3443764369103,1
45.08327747668339,56.3163717815305,0
61.10666453684766,96.51142588489624,1
75.02474556738889,46.55401354116538,1
76.09878670226257,87.42056971926803,1
84.43281996120035,43.53339331072109,1
95.86155507093572,38.22527805795094,0
75.01365838958247,30.60326323428011,0
82.30705337399482,76.48196330235604,1
69.36458875970939,97.71869196188608,1
39.53833914367223,76.03681085115882,0
53.9710521485623,89.20735013750205,1
69.07014406283025,52.74046973016765,1
67.94685547711617,46.67857410673128,0
70.66150955499435,92.92713789364831,1
76.97878372747498,47.57596364975532,1
67.37202754570876,42.83843832029179,0
89.67677575072079,65.79936592745237,1
50.534788289883,48.85581152764205,0
34.21206097786789,44.20952859866288,0
77.9240914545704,68.9723599933059,1
62.27101367004632,69.95445795447587,1
80.1901807509566,44.82162893218353,1
93.114388797442,38.80067033713209,0
61.83020602312595,50.25610789244621,0
38.78580379679423,64.99568095539578,0
61.379289447425,72.80788731317097,1
85.40451939411645,57.05198397627122,1
52.10797973193984,63.12762376881715,0
52.04540476831827,69.43286012045222,1
40.23689373545111,71.16774802184875,0
54.63510555424817,52.21388588061123,0
33.91550010906887,98.86943574220611,0
64.17698887494485,80.90806058670817,1
74.78925295941542,41.57341522824434,0
34.1836400264419,75.2377203360134,0
83.90239366249155,56.30804621605327,1
51.54772026906181,46.85629026349976,0
94.44336776917852,65.56892160559052,1
82.36875375713919,40.61825515970618,0
51.04775177128865,45.82270145776001,0
62.22267576120188,52.06099194836679,0
77.19303492601364,70.45820000180959,1
97.77159928000232,86.7278223300282,1
62.07306379667647,96.76882412413983,1
91.56497449807442,88.69629254546599,1
79.94481794066932,74.16311935043758,1
99.2725269292572,60.99903099844988,1
90.54671411399852,43.39060180650027,1
34.52451385320009,60.39634245837173,0
50.2864961189907,49.80453881323059,0
49.58667721632031,59.80895099453265,0
97.64563396007767,68.86157272420604,1
32.57720016809309,95.59854761387875,0
74.24869136721598,69.82457122657193,1
71.79646205863379,78.45356224515052,1
75.3956114656803,85.75993667331619,1
35.28611281526193,47.02051394723416,0
56.25381749711624,39.26147251058019,0
30.05882244669796,49.59297386723685,0
44.66826172480893,66.45008614558913,0
66.56089447242954,41.09209807936973,0
40.45755098375164,97.53518548909936,1
49.07256321908844,51.88321182073966,0
80.27957401466998,92.11606081344084,1
66.74671856944039,60.99139402740988,1
32.72283304060323,43.30717306430063,0
64.0393204150601,78.03168802018232,1
72.34649422579923,96.22759296761404,1
60.45788573918959,73.09499809758037,1
58.84095621726802,75.85844831279042,1
99.82785779692128,72.36925193383885,1
47.26426910848174,88.47586499559782,1
50.45815980285988,75.80985952982456,1
60.45555629271532,42.50840943572217,0
82.22666157785568,42.71987853716458,0
88.9138964166533,69.80378889835472,1
94.83450672430196,45.69430680250754,1
67.31925746917527,66.58935317747915,1
57.23870631569862,59.51428198012956,1
80.36675600171273,90.96014789746954,1
68.46852178591112,85.59430710452014,1
42.0754545384731,78.84478600148043,0
75.47770200533905,90.42453899753964,1
78.63542434898018,96.64742716885644,1
52.34800398794107,60.76950525602592,0
94.09433112516793,77.15910509073893,1
90.44855097096364,87.50879176484702,1
55.48216114069585,35.57070347228866,0
74.49269241843041,84.84513684930135,1
89.84580670720979,45.35828361091658,1
83.48916274498238,48.38028579728175,1
42.2617008099817,87.10385094025457,1
99.31500880510394,68.77540947206617,1
55.34001756003703,64.9319380069486,1
74.77589300092767,89.52981289513276,1

ex2data2.txt

0.051267,0.69956,1
-0.092742,0.68494,1
-0.21371,0.69225,1
-0.375,0.50219,1
-0.51325,0.46564,1
-0.52477,0.2098,1
-0.39804,0.034357,1
-0.30588,-0.19225,1
0.016705,-0.40424,1
0.13191,-0.51389,1
0.38537,-0.56506,1
0.52938,-0.5212,1
0.63882,-0.24342,1
0.73675,-0.18494,1
0.54666,0.48757,1
0.322,0.5826,1
0.16647,0.53874,1
-0.046659,0.81652,1
-0.17339,0.69956,1
-0.47869,0.63377,1
-0.60541,0.59722,1
-0.62846,0.33406,1
-0.59389,0.005117,1
-0.42108,-0.27266,1
-0.11578,-0.39693,1
0.20104,-0.60161,1
0.46601,-0.53582,1
0.67339,-0.53582,1
-0.13882,0.54605,1
-0.29435,0.77997,1
-0.26555,0.96272,1
-0.16187,0.8019,1
-0.17339,0.64839,1
-0.28283,0.47295,1
-0.36348,0.31213,1
-0.30012,0.027047,1
-0.23675,-0.21418,1
-0.06394,-0.18494,1
0.062788,-0.16301,1
0.22984,-0.41155,1
0.2932,-0.2288,1
0.48329,-0.18494,1
0.64459,-0.14108,1
0.46025,0.012427,1
0.6273,0.15863,1
0.57546,0.26827,1
0.72523,0.44371,1
0.22408,0.52412,1
0.44297,0.67032,1
0.322,0.69225,1
0.13767,0.57529,1
-0.0063364,0.39985,1
-0.092742,0.55336,1
-0.20795,0.35599,1
-0.20795,0.17325,1
-0.43836,0.21711,1
-0.21947,-0.016813,1
-0.13882,-0.27266,1
0.18376,0.93348,0
0.22408,0.77997,0
0.29896,0.61915,0
0.50634,0.75804,0
0.61578,0.7288,0
0.60426,0.59722,0
0.76555,0.50219,0
0.92684,0.3633,0
0.82316,0.27558,0
0.96141,0.085526,0
0.93836,0.012427,0
0.86348,-0.082602,0
0.89804,-0.20687,0
0.85196,-0.36769,0
0.82892,-0.5212,0
0.79435,-0.55775,0
0.59274,-0.7405,0
0.51786,-0.5943,0
0.46601,-0.41886,0
0.35081,-0.57968,0
0.28744,-0.76974,0
0.085829,-0.75512,0
0.14919,-0.57968,0
-0.13306,-0.4481,0
-0.40956,-0.41155,0
-0.39228,-0.25804,0
-0.74366,-0.25804,0
-0.69758,0.041667,0
-0.75518,0.2902,0
-0.69758,0.68494,0
-0.4038,0.70687,0
-0.38076,0.91886,0
-0.50749,0.90424,0
-0.54781,0.70687,0
0.10311,0.77997,0
0.057028,0.91886,0
-0.10426,0.99196,0
-0.081221,1.1089,0
0.28744,1.087,0
0.39689,0.82383,0
0.63882,0.88962,0
0.82316,0.66301,0
0.67339,0.64108,0
1.0709,0.10015,0
-0.046659,-0.57968,0
-0.23675,-0.63816,0
-0.15035,-0.36769,0
-0.49021,-0.3019,0
-0.46717,-0.13377,0
-0.28859,-0.060673,0
-0.61118,-0.067982,0
-0.66302,-0.21418,0
-0.59965,-0.41886,0
-0.72638,-0.082602,0
-0.83007,0.31213,0
-0.72062,0.53874,0
-0.59389,0.49488,0
-0.48445,0.99927,0
-0.0063364,0.99927,0
0.63265,-0.030612,0

 

[ ex2.m Output ]

Plotting data with + indicating (y = 1) examples and o indicating (y = 0) examples.

Program paused. Press enter to continue.

figure 1

ex2_figure1

Cost at initial theta (zeros): 0.693147
Gradient at initial theta (zeros):
 -0.100000
 -12.009217
 -11.262842 

Program paused. Press enter to continue.

Figure 2

ex2_figure2

Local minimum possible.

fminunc stopped because the final change in function value relative to
its initial value is less than the default value of the function tolerance.

<stopping criteria details>

Cost at theta found by fminunc: 0.203506
theta:
 -24.932998
 0.204408
 0.199618 

Program paused. Press enter to continue.
For a student with scores 45 and 85, we predict an admission probability of 0.774323

Train Accuracy: 89.000000

Program paused. Press enter to continue.

 

[ ex2_reg.m Output ]

Cost at initial theta (zeros): 0.693147

Program paused. Press enter to continue.

Figure 1

ex2_reg_figure1

Local minimum possible.

fminunc stopped because the final change in function value relative to
its initial value is less than the default value of the function tolerance.

<stopping criteria details>

Train Accuracy: 83.050847

Figure 2

ex2_reg_figure2

 

[ Unit Testing ]

Sigmoid Function Unit Tests

sigmoid(1200000)

ans =

     1

sigmoid(-25000)

ans =

     0

sigmoid(0)

ans =

    0.5000

sigmoid([4 5 6])

ans =

    0.9820    0.9933    0.9975

sigmoid(magic(3))

ans =

    0.9997    0.7311    0.9975
    0.9526    0.9933    0.9991
    0.9820    0.9999    0.8808

sigmoid(eye(2))

ans =

    0.7311    0.5000
    0.5000    0.7311

Predict() Unit Tests

X = [1 1 ; 1 2.5 ; 1 3 ; 1 4]
theta = [-3.5 ; 1.3]
predict(theta, X)

% results
ans =
   0
   0
   1
   1

Note: If you do not get this result, check that you are using the sigmoid() function, and that the decision threshold is >= 0.5

theta = [4 ; 3 ; -8]
X = magic(3)
predict(theta, X)

% result
ans =

   0
   0
   1

Advertisements

Author: iotmaker

I am interested in IoT, robot, figures & leadership. Also, I have spent almost every day of the past 15 years making robots or electronic inventions or computer programs.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s